# which ratio uses downside deviation: Sortino Ratio Formula, Example, Analysis, Calculator

- On April 28, 2022

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For instance, with downside deviation, there has to be enough ‘bad’ risks or observations to begin with for the resulting outcomes to be statistically noteworthy. To elaborate, the Sortino ratio uses only the downside volatility to evaluate a portfolio’s performance. On the other hand, the Sharpe ratio uses both the upside and downside volatility. Retail investors often struggle to select the ‘right’ investment scheme that matches their financial requirement and investing capability.

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This ratio tends to address the shortcomings of standard deviation as a measure of potential risks in a return and risk trade-off ratio. The Sortino ratio only measures downside deviation while the Sharpe ratio measures both upside and downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a calculation that measures an investment or portfolio’s risk-adjusted return.

## Limitations of using Sharpe ratio

This is the reason why the https://1investing.in/ is less popular among the investors, and it is more popular. However, it may sometimes depend on the investor whether they want to focus on good risk or bad risk. For calculating the Sortino ratio, the Portfolio’s actual return is deducted from the minimum accepted or expected return. The above difference is divided by the standard deviation of the negative asset returns or the downward deviation. Other downside risk measurements are sometimes employed by investors and analysts as well.

For instance, if there are two funds with different allocations to equity and bonds, the sharpe ratio helps us in assessing which is a better fund against a given level of risk and reward. It helps in comparing different funds which might be giving similar returns but the exposure to risk might be much more in one of them. To get around this limitation in the early 1980s, Dr. Frank Sortino proposed an improved formula for calculating risk-adjusted performance. In this formula, he used the downward volatility as a measure of risk, i.e., the volatility of portfolio returns that fall below a given level. Any returns above this level are not counted as risk and do not negatively affect the Sortino ratio. The Sortino ratio is calculated by taking the actual return, subtracting the risk-free rate of return, and dividing that number by the standard deviation of negative asset returns.

The fund’s Sortino ratio for 2018 was 0.85, which clearly indicates an improvement in its 2019 figure. However, while it may seem like the mutual fund is doing well on an annualized basis, its returns are still not coming in very efficiently. Consider ICICI Pru Midcap, whose 1-year return is about 86% right now, way above many mid-cap funds and 2 percentage points above the Nifty Midcap 150. But looking at this fund’s 1-year return over the past 3 years has it beating the mid-cap index just 62% of the time when the average for the mid-cap category is higher. But funds with a higher outperformance instances, such as Kotak Emerging Equity or Invesco Midcap at 86-88% are preferable.

## How is the Sortino ratio calculated?

People can rely on the Sortino ratio to measure the return they need to achieve a certain financial goal. For instance, they can use this metric to know how long they have to save money for a down payment, such as when buying a house or a car. The Sharpe that you see can vary based on the rolling returns period and the frequency of rolling considered. Therefore, the Sortino ratio should be used to assess the performance of high volatility assets, such as shares. In comparison, the Sharpe ratio is more suitable for analyzing low volatility assets, such as bonds.

The simple return ignores the risk taken by the fund to generate returns. Financial ratios are a tool for assessing the risk–adjusted return of an investment portfolio and its performance. The Sharpe ratio and the Sortino ratio are both risk-adjusted evaluations of return on investment. The Sharpe ratio indicates how well an equity investment is performing compared to a risk-free investment, taking into consideration the additional risk level involved with holding the equity investment. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that only factors in downside risk.

Analysts commonly prefer to use the Sharpe ratio to evaluate low-volatility investment portfolios and the Sortino variation to evaluate high-volatility portfolios. The Sharpe ratio is used more to evaluate low-volatility investment portfolios, and the Sortino variation is used more to evaluate high-volatility portfolios. As the Sortino ratio only involves downside deviation, every limitation of this measure of risk is instantly carried over. It is unique from the Sharpe ratio because it only focuses on the downside risk’s standard deviation vs. overall risk.

The Sortino ratio is almost identical to the Sharpe ratio, but it differs in one way. The Sharpe ratio accounts for risk-adjustments in investments with both positive and negative returns. The Sortino Ratio can be calculated by taking the average annual return and subtracting a risk-free rate, then dividing that total by the downside deviation figure. A stock with a high downside deviation can be considered less valuable than one with a normal deviation, even if their average returns over time are identical. That’s because when a stock dips, it will require higher returns in the future to get back to where it was.

Then, you divide that figure by the usual deviation of the portfolio or funding. The Sharpe ratio may be recalculated on the finish of the 12 months to look at the actual return somewhat than the anticipated return. A variation of the Sharpe ratio is the Sortino ratio, which removes the effects of upward worth movements on normal deviation to concentrate on the distribution of returns which are below the goal or required return. Obviously, your measure goes to start out only past the danger free rate. Standard deviation measures the danger via volatility and Sharpe therefore measures excess returns per unit of whole danger. Over the previous 25 years, the common annual Sharpe ratio for the S&P 500 has been 1.0 with frequent durations of a lot larger and lower ranges.

## What is a good Sortino ratio?

In that case, it’s more appropriate to use the Sortino Ratio when evaluating high-volatility portfolios. The Sharpe Ratio is the most commonly used metric for assessing the viability of a strategy or portfolio. You’ve probably come across it on popular strategy analysis tools like Myfxbook. However, the Sharpe Ratio punishes strategies with large and aggressive returns because of these limitations noted above. The very nature of day trading or scalping the forex market with a conservative risk management strategy implies that many positions each day or week will be opened and closed.

The retail investors usually prefer to pick the most favorable scheme for investment in a mutual fund. The selection of such a favorable scheme is very complicated, and hence investors often take help from the Sortino ratio. At an enterprise level, the most common downside risk measure is probably Value-at-Risk .

A common limitation of all accounting ratios is that it is backward looking and is based on historical returns. Sharpe ratio tells us how well we are being rewarded for the amount of risk we are taking. It tells us whether the chosen fund is better in comparison with other similar options available and helps in calculating whether it is underperforming or over performing as compared to other available options.

For the first which ratio uses downside deviation above, subtract 2.5% from 4.6% to get 2.1%, then divide that by the downside deviation of 4.23. It also calculates theSortino Ratio, a modification of the Sharpe Ratio that used downside deviation as a proxy for risk. Let’s turn to example to get a better understanding of how we can easily implement this measure using a spreadsheet. The following figure illustrates the steps needed to calculate DD for a series of returns. Sharpe Ratio expresses the relationship between performance of a scheme and its volatility. Therefore, we will quickly conclude for the sake of this example; the downside deviation was 22%.

## How to Calculate the Sortino Ratio

However, with the help of financial ratios like the Sortino ratio, they can evaluate a scheme’s performance in a much better manner. Everyone wants a significant excess beyond the risk-free rate, coupled with a bit of downside deviation. When analyzing Sortino values, the asset class must be taken into account. It’s not just the benchmark that’s important, but the category as well.

- Let’s add one other asset class to the portfolio, particularly a hedge fund, and tweak the portfolio allocation to 50 per cent in equity, forty per cent in bonds and 10 per cent within the hedge fund.
- DD was first proposed by Sortino and Price in 1994 in a paper called “Performance Measurement in a Downside Risk Framework” and it is part of the family of semi-deviation measures of risk.
- But once we take that a step additional and take a look at Sortino ratio, we are able to see that Fund B has the next worth, provided that it takes on less draw back risk.
- The Sharpe ratio indicates how well an equity investment is performing compared to a risk-free investment, taking into consideration the additional risk level involved with holding the equity investment.
- It is preferred over other risk-adjusted return assessment tools as it considers only the downside deviation and not the total volatility, which includes both upside and downside risks.

Our previous example comparing the Yacktman and Auxier Focused funds revealed that Yacktman reaped greater excess return relative to its downside volatility than did Auxier during a 10-year period. However, Yacktman’s overall Morningstar Risk rating of average means that those returns were earned by taking on more risk than did Auxier, which earned a low overall risk rating. In choosing between the two, risk-tolerant investors may find Yacktman more appealing, while those who are more risk-averse may be willing to give up some gains for a smoother ride with Auxier. Sharpe ratio is used to understand the relation between expected returns and volatility levels of a portfolio that helps compare different funds. But this ratio includes some impractical assumptions which is one of the major reasons why the sharpe ratio should not be looked at in isolation to make investment decisions. The Sortino ratio, often referred to as an improved version of the sharpe ratio, only assumes the downside volatility that matters to the investors.

Several performance measures, such as the Sortino Ratio are calculated using DD. The first step of calculating the downside deviation is to choose a minimum acceptable return . Popular choices include zero and the risk-free T-bill rate for the year. Standard deviation, the most widely used measure of investment risk, has some limitations.

## Company

Volatility is a key metric in funds where there is an inherent propensity for returns to fluctuate. In hybrid funds too, volatility is important; these funds are meant to help cushion your returns from equity-driven return swings and a highly fluctuating fund here is not going to help. Doing so allows you to account for both positive and negative stock returns. If you were to record only the positive stock returns, it would not be a true reflection of an investment. Thus, the downside deviation of the second company is much lower than that of the first, even though both showed the same average annual returns. However, there are instances where the ratio might also reach 3, and, in some instances, investors might be fine with values slightly less than 1 too.

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You should consider carefully whether such investments are appropriate to you, taking into account your financial assets. We advise everyone to seek independent advice regarding issues concerning investments on the currency spot market. No information on this website should be understood to constitute financial advice from Scandinavian Capital Markets SCM AB. It is published for information and marketing purposes. Scandinavian Capital Markets may reject any applicant from any jurisdiction at their sole discretion without the requirement to explain the reason why. Now let’s follow an example of how to calculate the Sortino Ratio of a forex trading account.

Sortino ratio is a statistical tool to measure the risk-adjusted performance of an investment portfolio relative to the standard deviation of negative asset return, also called the downward deviation. It is calculated by dividing the difference between the portfolio’s return and the risk-free rate of return or the target rate of return with the standard deviation of the negative returns. The denominator is the standard deviation of the negative returns, which is often referred to as downside deviation. The major difference between the Sortino ratio and the Sharpe ratio is that the Sortino ratio assumes only the downside volatility as it divides excess returns by downside volatility instead of total volatility. This ratio is useful to calculate portfolio returns for a given level of bad risk.